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Mipat hmeichhiatna hman khawlohna leh suahsualna chi hrang hrang laka kan lo fihlim zel theih nan

Zu leh ruihtheih thil avanga harsatna tawk mekte leh an chhungte tan

Indiaram President, Governor-te, Central leh State-a sorkar officer lian zawng zawngte tan


 

 

 

Hriatzauna Huang

Khawvel hmun tam zawkah chuan lehkhapuan hman hnu hi an la khawm a, a siam that lehna khawl hmangin lehkhapuan thaah an chhuah leh zel thin a. Hetianga an siam that leh ang chi hi chanchinbu chhut nan te, bawm siam nan te, paper napkin an tih, inhrukna chi siam nan te an hmang leh thin a ni. Lehkhapuan siam nan hian thing te, mau te an hman avangin ram ngaw an tichereu nasa tawh hle a. Hetianga lehkhapuan chhia an siam that leh hian thing leh mau tam tak an kih loh phah a ni. USA-ah phei chuan chawh rualin mi pakhatin lehkhapuan kgs 300 kum tin an hmang ral ziah anga chhet a ni.

Mizoramah pawh hian kan hmang hnem ve hle ang. Kan ram mau te hi lehkhapuan siam nan phai lamah an phur thla nasa thei hle mai a, kan ram luipui kama mi phei chu an kit rem tep tawh a ni. Chuvangin kan lehkhabu te hi fimkhur leh ren deuhin hmang ila, kan ram ngaw te hi kan vawng him a ni ang. Thil ho mai mai atana pawh thlak te, pawh thlir mai mai te chin loh tur a ni a. Kan ren thiam phawt chuan dawra mi to deuh deuha lei fo a ngai dawn lo a ni.

Chhungkaw tin deuh thaw hian mombati kan tih mai, sathau khawnvar hi kan hmang thin a. Hetiang hi an hman tanna a rei tawh khawp mai a; mi thiamte chhut dan phei chuan prehistoric hun an tih, mihringte puka an chen thin lai atang tawha sathau khawnvar hi hman tan niin an hria a ni. Tuna kan hman tlanglawn ber a tl^wn ang chi hi Egypt, Mizovin Aigupta kan tih ramah an lai chhuak a, kum 5000 vel laia upa niin an chhut a ni. A tirah chuan khawnvartui kan chhit thin ang hian burah sathau an dah a, a phita tur la hrualin sathau/ sahriakah chuan an zuk chiah a, an chhi mai thin a ni. Sahriak bakah hian khawihnun pawh an chhi thin bawk. Sakhua zawng zawng hian hetianga sathau khawnvar chhit hi an ngai pawimawh hle a. Biak Inah te pawh hian kohhran thenkhat chuan an chhi thin a ni.

Tun tum chu 2001 chhiarpui atangin India ram chanchin tlem i lo zir teh ang.

Mihring zawng zawng - 1,02,70,15,247 (Mipa-53,12,77,078. Hmeichhia-49,57,38,169. Mipa 1000 zelah hmeichhia 933 awm ang an ni).

Square kilometre khatah mihring 324 cheng ang kan ni. (Mizoramah hian sq. km khatah mi 42 cheng ang kan ni).

Kum sawm (1991-2001) chhunga mihring pun dan chu za zelah 21.34 a ni. Mihring pun chakna ber state chu Nagaland a niin kum sawm chhungin zaah 64.41-in an pung hman a. Pung chak lo ber state chu Kerala a niin zaah 9.42-in an pung ve chauh a ni. Mizoramah chuan zaah 29.18-in kan pung hman a ni. (Tun ang zela mihring kan pung chak lo a nih chuan Kachari-ho ang maiin kan ram hi hnam dangin min la luahsak mai ang tih a hlauhawm a ni).

India ram mipui zaa 65.38-in ziak leh chhiar an thiam a. Ziak leh chhiar thiam tamna ber state chu Kerala a niin zaa 90.92-in an thiam a ni. Mizoramah hian mihring 8,91,058 kan awmin chung zinga zaa 88.49-te chuan ziak leh chhiar an thiam a n

 

MALARIA

Kan rama natna tlanglawn ber chu malaria hi a ni awm e. Tun tumah hian he natna leh a thehdarhtu chanchin tlem kan zir ho dawn a ni.

Malaria natna hi natna hriat theih chinah a upa ber te zinga mi niin BC 5-na hun lai khan damdawi lam chanchin ziaknaah tarlan a lo ni tawhin chutah chuan Hippocrates-a chuan a thawh dan azirin chi thumin a lo thliar tawh a ni.

He natna leh hmun hnawngin inzawmna a nei tih an hriatna chu a rei tawh hle a. Amaherawhchu thosi a inhnamhnawih tih leh hrik nei a ni tih erawh chu kum zabi 20-na tir lam kum 1880 khan France sipai daktor Alphonse Laveran-an a hmu chhuakin malaria thlentu a ni ngei tih an hre ta a ni a. Kum 1898 khan Italian mi pathum Amico Bignami, Giovanni Battista Grassi leh Guisseppe Bastianelli-te chuan mihring taksaa malaria hrik than chhoh dan zir chiangin he natna hrik hi thosiah rau rau pawh anopheline an tih chi chauhin mihringah a thlen a ni tih te an hre chhuak thar zel a. Thosi bakah hian inchiuna hriau inhman tawm leh malaria hrik pai thisen inpek atangin a kai chhawn theih tih te an hriat belh bawk a ni.

Malaria hi hmun lum leh hnawng, thosi inthlah pun awlsamna hmun Tropic of Cancer chhehvel bawrah a hluarin natna buaipuiawm tak a ni a. Kum zabi 20-na tawp lamah khan kum tinin khawvel pumah mi maktaduai 250 vel zetin he natna hi an vei a, mi maktaduai 2 vel laiin an thihpui niin chhut a ni.

Mihringa malaria hrik pu darhtu ber anopheline thosi chi bikho hi khawvel pumah chi hrang 60 lai an awm a. Tui tlingah tuiin a tui rawn keu chu tuiah thang lianin a puitlinah a thlawk chhuak a. A nu hian a tui insiam nan thisen a mamawh a. Hei vang hian malaria pai mihring thisen a zukin a hrik a fawp lut tel a, a kawchhungah a lo inthlah pung ta thin a, chuta tangin mihringah a kai darh chhawng leh a ni.

Malaria hrik hi microscope-a thisen tl>m enin hriat a ni ber a. Malaria damdawi hman lar deuh deuh chu chloroquine, pamaquine, pyrimethamine, leh amodiaquin te a niin heng damdawi hian thisena malaria hrik a zuk tihlum thei a ni.

Kum zabi 20-na tawp lam atang khan plasmodium vivax (PV) leh plasmodium falsiparum (PF) hrik te hian a enkawlna damdawi an lo do let theiin hrik cham bang a awm thei ta tlat mai a. Chuvangin malaria damdawi kan eiin ei dan tur dik takin kan eiin a hun biah kan ei ngei tur a ni.

Malaria do dan tha ber chu a tui theihna tihbo hi a ni a. DDT, dieldrin leh damdawi chi hrang hrang hmangin an bei bawk thin a. Zan lamah thosi hi a thlawh chhuah deuh ber avangin thosilen tha takin kan zar tur a ni a. Thosilen damdawia chiah a tha hlein tukverha len sin zar pawh a tangkai hle.

Kan khua a sik reng rengin thisen laktira damdawi lam thiam rawn vat zel hi a him ber a ni.

Source - Encyclopedia Britannica, 2002
 

 

Sathau khawnvar

Sathau khawnvar, ‘mombati’ tia kan hriat lar zawk hi mihringin kan hman tanna a rei tawh hle a. Aigupte (Egypt) leh Crete thliarkara thil hlui an laih chhuah zinga mombati an laih chhuah tel chu mi thiamten an han zir chian chuan kum 5000 aia upa a ni tlat mai. Mihringte puka an chen hun lai pawh khan sathau khawnvar hi an hmang tawhin mi thiamte chuan an ring hial a ni.

Sathau khawnvar hi a hming ang tak hian an siam thin a. Bawng thau te, vawk thau te leh ransa dang thau te pawh an kang er a, a hriak kha burah emaw, thlengah emaw an dah a, a phita tur la an hrual a, sahriakah chuan an zuk chiah a, an chhi mai thin a ni. A phita khan sathau kha a zuk hip a, chu chu a k^ng ta a. Hetianga tih hian a phita kha a kang ral mai lo a ni. Amaherawhchu intihpalh a hlauhawm avangin fimkhur takin tihtluk mai mai phak lohvah an dah thin. Tunlaiah chuan chutianga tihbuai ngai lovin mombati siam sa kan lei mai a. Hmun thenkhatah erawh chuan burah khawnvartui an dah a, a phita siamin an la chhi thin a, a tangkai hle a ni.

Mombati hi ran thau bakah whale thau atang tein an siam thin a. Tin, khawihnun pawh an hmang bawk thin. A hriak bur tur hi Rom-ho khan d^r leh hlum tein an siam thin a. Chutiang chi chu milemah pawh kan hmu fo ang. Kum zabi 18-na velah kha chuan mi hausate chuan mombati dahna tha
leh man to tak tak an hmang nasa hle a. Hetiang chiah hian mombati 20 chuang te an chhiin a eng tha hle a ni.

Tunlaiah pawh hian electric current a awm loh veleh mombati kan chhi thuai thin a. A remchangin a tha hle a ni. Amaherawhchu infiamna chi a ni lo va, khawih mai mai loh tur a ni. A chhitna tur pawh kan fimkhurin kang thei thil chungah kan chhi mai mai tur a ni lo va, tha tak leh nghet takin kan phun tur a ni. Chuti a nih loh chuan thil dang a kang kaiin emaw, a kan zawhah a chhitna kha a lo kang kai ang a, in a kang palh mai ang.

 

LEHKHAPUAN

Lehkhapuan (paper) hi a tirah chuan phairuang chi khat papyrus an tih mai atanga siam a ni a, chuta tang chuan paper tih hming pawh hi a lo chhuak a ni. Phairuang kung pawn na chu pan te tein an hlai a, a chhunga a hamda chu a inkawkalh zawngin an dah thuah zel a. Chutia an dah thuah chu thil rit deuhin an delh phek ta tlat a. Rei deuh an dah hnuah chuan a lo inchar
belhbawmin a lo ro a, lehkhapuan ang hian a lo chhuak ta mai a ni, an ti. Hetianga lehkhapuan an siam hi chu a var a, a thapin a phui tha lo hle a ni an ti bawk.

Chutianga an lehkhapuan siam chu sei deuh deuhin an char zawm a, a zialin an zial ta a. Chutia an siam tawh chuan duh hun hunah thil ziak nan an hmang tawh mai a ni. Bible-a lehkhabu hrang hrang te pawh hi a tirah chuan hetiang lehkha zial ang chi vek hi a ni a. Zawlnei Isaia bu pawh hi lehkhabu zial pakhat a ni, an ti. A bu a thui ang zelin a lehkha zial pawh an zawm sei mai a ni.

Mihring an lo changkang zel a, phairuang ni lo thil dang hmanga lehkhapuan siam dan an rawn thiam chho ta zel a. Tuna lehkhapuan kan neih ang hi Chinese-ho chuan kum 2000 chuang liam taah khan an lo siam thiam daih tawh a. Anni chuan thing te, puan them te, hrui leh sangha len chhia te hmangin an siam a. Anni lehkhapuan siam pawh hi a tirah chuan thil ziakna atan chuan duh aiin a mam tha lo va, thil fun nan te an hmang ber a ni.

Tunlaiah chuan lehkhapuan siam nan thing leh mau an hmang ber tawh a. A tha bik deuh siam nan erawh
chuan puan lam chi pawh an la hmang tho a ni. Kilometre 4,50,000 bialah thing to khat thap sela, chu chu khawvel pum mamawh khawp lehkhapuan siam nan a tawk vel chauh ang an ti. Hetiang hi a nih avangin thingkung an kit nasa hle mai a. Lehkhapuan siam nan chauh ni lo in sak nan leh thil dang atan te thing an kih nasat avangin khawvelah thing a tlem tial tial a. Ram changkangah phei chuan thing phun lamah tan an la nasain kan ramah pawh theih tawpin sawrkarin tan a la a ni.

Thing a tlem tawh em avang hian lehkhapuan chhia siam that (recycle) leh hi an uar thar em em a. Lehkhapuan chhia kha khawlin an her sawm leh a, thil dang nena chawhpawlhin lehkhakhawngah te, chanchinbu chhutna chi lehkhapuanah te an siam chhuak leh thin a ni.

Keini pawhin kan lehkhapuan te ren leh fimkhur takin kan hmang tur a ni a. Tul lovah kan pawt thler mai mai tur a ni lo va, kan paih mai mai tur a ni hek lo.

Thing a lo tlem tak avang hian lehkhapuan siamna tur a vang mai a ni lo va, khawvel sik leh sa inlumletin a mumal loh phah a, tui in turin a tlem phah nasa em em bawk a ni.

 



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